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Diabetes and Ramadan

This information kit is designed to provide you with facts and practical advice about fasting during Ramadan. According to healthcare professionals, most people with diabetes are exempt from fasting.1 Deciding to fast is a personal decision and you should talk it over with your doctor at least one to two months before Ramadan begins, so that a medical assessment can be undertaken.

This information kit will help you understand the risks associated with fasting and provide tips for talking to your doctor if you are thinking about fasting during Ramadan. It also includes a Blood Sugar Tracker to help you manage your diabetes should you wish to fast.

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Diabetes Fact Sheet WHO

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.

347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2004, an estimated 3.4 million people died from consequences of fasting high blood sugar. A similar number of deaths has been estimated for 2010. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

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Diabetes in Childhood

In 2007, the total child population of the world (0-14 years) was estimated to be 1.8 billion, of whom 0.02% have diabetes. This means that approximately 440,000 children around the world have diabetes with 70,000 new cases diagnosed each year.
This very large number of children needs help to survive with injections of insulin to live a full life without restrictions or disabling complications and without being stigmatized for their diabetes.

Even today, almost a century after the discovery of insulin, the most common cause of death in a child with diabetes from a global perspective is lack of access to insulin.
Many children die before their diabetes is diagnosed. i

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Diabetes Kills – New IDF Public Service Announcement

INTERNATIONAL DIABETES FEDERATION
http://www.idf.org/worlddiabetesday/news/diabetes-kills-public-service-announcement
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has produced a new global public service announcement to highlight some of the key messages of the World Diabetes Day 2013 campaign. The strong fifty-second animation challenges the public to look at diabetes in a different light, underlining the serious consequences of the disease that can often go unnoticed if it is not managed and treated properly. The powerful visuals also promote the importance of staying healthy to protect our future.

DIABETES: COMPLICATIONS: LONG TERM:

MANAGING DIABETES: COMPLICATIONS AND COMORBIDITIES

Diabetes complication can be prevented:
1. Know Your Numbers to prevent complications :
Blood Glucose Levels, A1C Blood Test, Blood Pressure, Cholesterol
http://www.diabetesselfcare.org/downloads/Handout_KnowNumbers.pdf
2. Setting Goals for Success
http://www.diabetesselfcare.org/downloads/Handout_Goals.pdf
3. Targeting Good Health: Test your knowledge – Recommended targets
http://www.diabetesselfcare.org/downloads/Handout_Tests_Targets.pdf
Chronic high blood sugars can cause damage to various organs such as the eyes (Retinopathy), nerves (Peripheral Neuropathy), kidneys (Nephropathy), the blood vessels in the heart (Cardiovascular Disease) and the brain (Stroke)

Diabetes: Paediatric

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism that are found in diabetes are due to deficient action of insulin on target tissues. If ketones are present in blood or urine, treatment is urgent, because ketoacidosis can evolve rapidly.

Diabetes: Paediatrics and Adolescent:

The International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes:ISPAD Declaration
On December fifth, two thousand and twelve at Puluma Beach, KZN Province, South Africa, the African Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ASPAE) supported by the International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) reviewed the declaration of Kos and reaffirmed the relevance of the Declaration appropriate for the current and emerging needs of African children and adolescents diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

They declared their commitment to the promotion of optimal health, social welfare and well-being for all children and adolescents with diabetes in Africa, and considered the unique factors that must be addressed by health care professionals responsible for the health of young.

Dialysis : Healthy Living with Dialysis

The dependence on artificial life support devices, adherence to strict medical regimes and increase in financial obligations and a decrease in physical and social functioning, frequently result in feelings of depression, anxiety, worthlessness and hostility.
All members of your family unit are affected by your renal disease. Family members may need to assume new roles.
For the person who is ill, losing former roles either temporary or permanently, can be frightening and depressing.These include unemployment or being too ill to do family chores, to name a few. There are changes in roles or lifestyles that may occur in your own family.
Family members may need to be responsible for you at first but continuing to treat you as if you are too sick to care for you can place a huge burden on the family. Due to your illness you may need to depend on your family at first, this may be hard to accept, especially if you are a very independent person.
Sex may be a difficult topic to many, but it is important to discuss it in order to understand the physical and emotional changes that occur with renal failure. A chronic illness such as renal failure will change one's desire for sexual intimacy.
For men sexual dysfunction or the inability to maintain an erection may occur and women may experience difficulty with arousal. Men and women may just show a lack of interest, which can strain a sexual relationship. It is important to talk these concerns over with your doctor or nurse. Being a kidney patient doesn't mean you can't have a satisfying relationship.
Kidney failure and the treatment may be difficult to accept at first however with time, support and education you can adjust.You must learn to live with dialysis as part of your life. Learn is the key word for you as a dialysis patient if you are going to make the most of life.You will need to learn to understand and accept your illness and learn what it means to be a kidney patient. You will need to learn to eat and drink the right things, to take medication and exercise appropriately.
Communication is vital, talk about your feelings and experiences with someone you trust. Talking and sharing about what is happening to you will decrease your feelings of loneliness and increase your feelings of being supported and loved. Share your thoughts and feelings with family, friends and your medical treatment team. Talking to other patients is helpful.
Once you are feeling better it will be important to return to as many of your past activities as possible. With your doctors permission you may return to work, your hobbies, clubs etc. Getting back into old routines will help you feel that sense of normality again.
In conclusion your overall physical and mental adjustment depends upon you.

Dialysis : What is Dialysis

Dialysis is the major treatment for kidney failure. It is the medical word for filtering waste products and removing fluid from your body that your kidneys are no longer able to remove.

Take control with dialysis at home.
There are two types of dialysis you can do at home: Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) and Home Haemodialysis (HHD).

With either type of home dialysis, youâll be trained by health care professionals to do the procedure yourself, at home, or with help from a family member or a friend if you need it.

Many patients choose home dialysis because it can be more comfortable, flexible and convenient providing more freedom to maintain their current lifestyles.

HEALTH INFORMATION: MEDLINE PLUS

MEDLINEPLUS HEALTH INFORMATION

HEALTH TOPICS
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html

AND

HEPATITIS RISK ASSESSMENT
http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/RiskAssessment/

TUTORIALS: INTERACTIVE VIDEOS
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorial.html

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Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected.

Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Before 1992, when widespread screening of the blood supply began in the United States, Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants.

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Hepatitis C Fact Sheet WHO

Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis C virus. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.

The hepatitis C virus is usually spread when blood from an infected person enters the body of a susceptible person. It is among the most common viruses that infect the liver.

Every year, 3–4 million people are infected with the hepatitis C virus. About 150 million people are chronically infected and at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. More than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases every year.

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HIV/AIDS

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) targets the immune system and weakens people's surveillance and defense systems against infections and some types of cancer. As the virus destroys and impairs the function of immune cells, infected individuals gradually become immune-deficient. Immune function is typically measured by CD4 cell count. Immunodeficiency results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections and diseases that people with healthy immune systems can fight off. The most advanced stage of HIV infection is Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which can take from 2 to 15 years to develop depending on the individual.

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HIV/AIDS 101

Source : National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitus, STD, and TB Prevention. Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.
Running Time : (6:57)
Release Date: 07/11/2012
HIV/AIDS 101 is a video that uses new technologies, cutting edge graphics and story to convey the most important messages that everyone needs to know about HIV and prevention. It has a message that we all need to know and share with our friends and loved ones. It features a young man searching his computer tablet for information on AIDS, and finds, with a little help, it's right there "at his fingertips."

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Patient Education

Patient education is the process by which health professionals and others impart information to patients and their caregivers that will alter their health behaviours or improve their health status.

The value of patient education can be summarised as follows:
* Improved understanding of medical condition, diagnosis, disease, or disability.
* Improved understanding of methods and means to manage multiple aspects of medical condition.
* Improved self-advocacy in deciding to act both independently from medical providers and in interdependence with them.
* Increased Compliance – Effective communication and patient education increases patient motivation to comply.
* Patient Outcomes – Patients more likely to respond well to their treatment plan – fewer complications.
* Informed Consent – Patients feel you’ve provided the information they need.
* Utilization – More effective use of medical services – fewer unnecessary phone calls and visits.
* Satisfaction and referrals – Patients more likely to stay with your practice and refer other patients.
* Risk Management - Lower risk of malpractice when patients have realistic expectations.
Reference : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patient_education

Access to accurate, comprehensive information is required to make smart choices about health care. Patients require access to evidence-based recommendations to make the right decisions together with the Healthcare Provider.

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Smoking Cessation How and Why to Quit WHO

Nicotine is highly addictive, leading those trying to quit smoking down a path of physical and psychological hardship. Kicking the habit, though not easy is not impossible either Through determination, will power and the practical strategies listed below, anything is possible.

Tobacco Global Epidemic

Tobacco kills up to half of those who use it. Yet tobacco use is common throughout the world due to low prices, aggressive and widespread marketing, lack of awareness about its dangers, and inconsistent public policies against its use.

Most of tobacco's damage to health does not become evident until years or even decades after the onset of use. So, while tobacco use is rising globally, the epidemic of tobacco-related disease and death has yet to reach its peak.

This fact file shows how the devastating tobacco epidemic is growing, describes the state of tobacco control worldwide, and explains how this preventable epidemic can be halted with a set of six effective tobacco control policies.

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Tuberculosis Fact Sheet WHO

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected.
About one-third of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with disease and cannot transmit the disease.
People infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB of 10%. However persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill.

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